Objective To analyze the incidence of occupational diseases and explore strategies for the prevention and control of occupational diseases in a city of Pearl River Delta.
Methods The data of newly diagnosed cases with occupational diseases reported by the city in the National Occupational Disease and Occupational Health Information Monitoring System from 2011 to 2020 was collected. The basic characteristics and spatio-temporal distribution of newly diagnosed cases with occupational diseases were described using Excel tools, including the composition of occupational diseases, population distribution, industry distribution, and incidence trends.
Results A total of 704 new cases of occupational diseases were reported in the city from 2011 to 2020, including 645 males(91.62%) and 59 females(8.39%). Occupational diseases caused by physical factors were the most common(213 cases, accounting for 30.26%), including 202 cases of hand-arm vibration disease; there were 212 cases(30.11%) of occupational otorhinolaryngological diseases reported, including 211cases of noise-induced hearing loss; there were 184 cases(26.13%) of pneumoconiosis reported; 75 cases(10.65%) of occupational chronic chemical poisoning were reported, including 43 cases of chronic benzene poisoning; Besides, there were 8 cases(1.14%) of occupational cancer, 8 cases(1.14%) of occupational skin diseases, and 4 cases(0.57%) of other respiratory diseases reported. The number of newly diagnosed occupational disease cases began to rise in 2015 and reached the highest level in 2018. The cases of the 640 new four major occupational diseases(hand-arm vibration disease, noise-induced hearing loss, pneumoconiosis, and chronic benzene poisoning)were reported in the manufacturing(576 cases, 90.00%) and mining(46 cases, 7.19%) industries. The top three industries(sub-categories) in manufacturing industry were manufacture of educational, artistic, sports and recreational goods(235 cases, 40.80%), manufacture of fabricated metal products(83 cases, 12.97%), and manufacture of non-metallic mineral products(35 cases, 5.47%). The age distribution of new cases of major occupational diseases in the city was mainly concentrated in the 46-50 and 51-55 age groups, with the working time of 6-10 years.
Conclusions The main reported occupational diseases in this city were hand-arm vibration disease, noise-induced hearing loss, pneumoconiosis, and chronic benzene poisoning, which should be prevented and controlled. Specific investigation and governance of manufacturing, mining, and construction industries should be strengthened to reduce the incidence of occupational diseases.